Sir George Trevelyan: memories and observations

World events, timeline  1906-1996

the wider context of Sir George's life

This way! Click me and I'll take you to the next page!

* denotes a general historic trend
Sir George's age is inserted once every decade

+ PERSIA: revolution in Persia;  INDIA: Aga Khan founds the All-India Moslem League
+ N AFRICA: France & Spain control & divide Morocco;  CHINA: Britain agrees to cut opium trade
+ USA: San Francisco earthquake
+ INNOVATION: Patents Act (UK); Pure Foods & Drugs Act (USA); 'Lusitania' crosses Atlantic in 5 days
+ ARTS: Strauss, Delius, Elgar, Hammerstein, Mahler, Rimski-Korsakov, Bartok, Schönberg, at work
+ WORLD: Peace Conference at the Hague (diplomatic precedent); international financial panic
+ OCEANIA: New Zealand acquires dominion status;  ASIA: Japan gains control of Korea
+ ARTS: exhibition of cubist paintings in Paris: Picasso, Braque
+ INNOVATION: Pavlov on reflexes; colour photography; tissue culture techniques; Boy Scouts founded
+ E EUROPE: Bulgaria independent; Austria annexes Bosnia & Herzegovina (unpopular in Balkans)
+ OTTOMANS: revolt of Young Turks (seeking constitutional rights & suffrage, to halt Ottoman decline)
+ S AFRICA: Union of S Africa established; Crete unites with Greece;  EUROPE: travels of Edward VII
+ GERMANY: Zeppelin disaster;  INNOVATION: first steel-glass building; bakelite; Model-T Ford; ammonia
+ INNOVATION: Peary reaches North Pole; Bleriot flies English Channel; genetics research (Morgan)
+ C AMERICA: civil war in Honduras
+ * ARTS: development of abstract painting: Kandinsky, Mondrian
+ EAST ASIA: Japan (by now a modern power) annexes Korea (until 1945)
+ S AFRICA: formation of Union of South Africa (Boer general Botha first PM)
+ WORLD: Mexican Revolution begins; republican revolution in Portugal; revolt in Albania
+ ARTS: Matisse, Cezanne, Picasso, Epstein, Monet, Kandinsky at work; architect F Lloyd Wright
+ INNOVATION: development of plastics; Rutherford's Theory of Atomic Structure; research in oceanography
+ CHINA: CHINESE REPUBLICAN REVOLUTION (Sun Yat-sen); end of Manchu dynasty (1644-1911)
+ N AFRICA: Italy conquers Libya (Turkish-Italian war) (first use of airplanes in warfare)
+ BRITAIN: suffragettes (Emily Pankhurst) seek women's votes & rights; also many labour strikes
+ BRITAIN: Lloyd George's Nat Insurance Bill & Official Secrets Act
+ C ASIA: independence of Tibet & Mongolia;  WORLD: Amundsen reaches South Pole (Scott 1912)
+ SE EUROPE: Balkan Crisis (1912-13): Balkan states unify against Turkey & Austria
+ * EUROPE: armaments race between European powers;  BRITAIN: RAF founded
+ BRITAIN: miners', dock & transport strikes;  USA: textile workers' strikes (IWW)
+ IDEAS: Adler, Jung, Jaspers on psychoanalysis; Taussig, Mitchell, Oppenheimer on social economy
+ RUSSIA: Lenin & Stalin join forces, Lenin edits Pravda;  ATLANTIC: sinking of the Titanic
+ INNOVATION: vitamins, protons & electrons identified; cellophane production; FW Woolworth founded
+ INNOVATION: Henry Ford develops conveyer-belt production of Model-T car, Detroit USA
+ SE EUROPE: Balkan states fight over land & sovreignty; Balkans 'powder-keg of Europe'
+ INDIA: Mahatma Ghandi (Passive Resistance Movement) arrested;  BRITAIN: Mrs Pankhurst jailed
+ * IDEAS: Bertrand Russell, Nils Bohr, J Jeans, R Steiner, Albert Schweizer, Einstein at work
+ * ARTS: Charlie Chaplin, Cecil B de Mille, Irving Berlin, Rutland Boughton; jazz popular
+ EAST ASIA: Germany yields islands in Pacific to Japan, Australia & NZ, and concessions in China
+ EUROPE: OUTBREAK OF FIRST WORLD WAR (fuelled by Balkan crisis & intransigent Euro powers)
+ EUROPE: Battles of Namur, Mons, Ypres, Tannenberg, Marne;  AMERICAS: strife between US & Mexico
+ WORLD: French & British annex German colonies except German East Africa; UK takes Egypt (Suez Canal)
+ C AMERICA: Panama Canal opens;  AFRICA: uniting of Nigeria
+ EUROPE: devastating war in Belgium, Poland, North Sea, Aegean, Armenia, Persia, Balkans
+ EUROPE: airborne & submarine war, Zeppelins bomb London; Joffre, Haig & Nicholas II commanders
+ USA: President W Wilson's 'New Freedom' (against corruption, trusts, protectionism & unfair taxes)
+ INNOVATION: Ford's farm tractor & millionth car; first transcontinental telephone call (Bell)
+ INNOVATION: first birth control clinic opens, NY USA; blood transfusion;  USA: alcohol prohibition
+ INDIA: Hindus & Muslims join to call for Indian autonomy;  EUROPE: Martin Buber's 'Spirit of Judaism'
+ EUROPE: expensive stalemate in war provokes political crises in all countries
+ IRELAND: Sinn Fein Easter Rebellion;  MIDEAST: T E Lawrence supports Arabs against Turks
+ AMERICAS: USA expands in Caribbean (buying Danish & Dutch islands)
Age 10
+ MIDEAST: Balfour Declaration promises Jews a national home in British-occupied Palestine
+ RUSSIA: OCTOBER REVOLUTION: world's first socialist state; peace, land reform, democracy
+ USA: USA joins world war;  EUROPE: Finland & Albania gain independence
+ EUROPE: Germany, Austria & Turkey in retreat; starvation in Germany
+ EUROPE: Germany, Austria & Turkey sue for armistice: end of First World War; 8.5m dead
+ RUSSIA: minority Bolsheviks take over; widespread civil war; famine & disease spread
+ USA: President W Wilson announces 'Fourteen Points' (progressive treaty proposals for world)
+ ASIA: Japanese advance into Siberia;  BRITAIN: women over 30 become voters
+ EUROPE: Czechoslovakia (Masaryk), Yugoslavia, Poland & Iceland independent
+ MIDEAST: Woolley excavates Babylon;  INNOVATION: Shapley researches Milky Way galaxy
+ WORLD: nationalist movements & revolts in India, Egypt, China
+ WORLD: Paris Peace Conference; map of Europe & Middle East redrawn; USA now leading world power
+ EUROPE: influenza epidemic (millions die); unrest in Germany; Weimar Rep; White Russian defeat
+ INNOVATION: Rutherford's research on atom, Cambridge UK;  ARTS: Bauhaus school of design in Germany
+ INNOVATION: first crossing of Atlantic by air (Alcock & Brown, 16 hrs); advances in meteorology
+ USA: race riots & strikes; MIDEAST: Syria independent;  EUROPE: Hungary independent
+ MIDEAST: Mustapha Kemal (Ataturk) leads Turkish nationalist movement & resistance to partition
+ WORLD: League of Nations established, HQ Geneva (unsuccessful after 1924; USA does not join)
+ * WORLD: end of European dominance; rise of USA & USSR; disarmament fails; slow economic recovery;
  fragile new democratic states; antipathy to USSR; Third World nationalism; Britain & France divide Mid East
+ INNOVATION: first public radio broadcasts, USA and UK (BBC); International Court of Justice, the Hague, founded
+ * WORLD: rise of Ghandi, Churchill, Mussolini, Hitler, Stalin;  RUSSIA: end of Civil War
+ PERSIA: Reza Khan becomes leader in Persia, becomes Shah 1925 (bringing reform)
+ E AFRICA: Washington conference attempts to regulate situation in East Asia
+ N AFRICA: Battle of Anual: Spanish army defeated by Moroccans
+ USA: USA restricts immigration (maturing of nation); trade protectionism, stock-market boom
+ GERMANY: galloping inflation in Weimar Rep;  PERSIA: Reza Khan takes power
+ IDEAS: Arthur Waley & W Y Evans-Wentz, orientalists;
+ MIDEAST: Greek army expelled from Turkey; last Ottoman sultan deposed; republic declared
+ USSR: formation of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (CCCP);  ITALY: Mussolini takes power
+ IRELAND: Irish Free State, Eire, created;  BRITAIN: Marie Stopes advocates birth control
+ INNOVATION: research on heredity (Morgan), white corpuscles, diabetes, physics, sound movies, astronomy
+ * ARTS: Louis Armstrong & Duke Ellington; T S Eliot, Brecht, James Joyce, V Woolf, D H Lawrence
+ EUROPE: French occupy Ruhr (on German failure to pay reparations); Pan-Europa Movement founded
+ USA: General Motors established (world's largest manufacturing company); racist Ku Klux Klan
+ JAPAN: Tokyo & Yokohama destroyed in earthquake;  WORLD: exploration in Tibet, Gobi & Poles
+ EUROPE: dictatorships: de Rivera in Spain, Mussolini in Italy
+ MIDEAST: Transjordan independent; Turkish capital moves to Ankara
+ IDEAS: Schweitzer 'Philosophy of Civilisation'; Webbs' 'Decay of Capitalism'; Mauthner 'Atheism'
+ USSR: death of Lenin (rise of Stalin);  * SCANDINAVIA: rise of Social Democracy (Hjalmar Branting)
+ BRITAIN: first Labour government (Ramsey MacDonald, short-lived);  INDIA: Ghandi fasts 21 days
+ INNOVATION: Imperial Airways; Time Magazine; electric razor; Hubble Effect; theory of acids & bases
+ EUROPE: Locarno treaties stabilise frontiers in the West;  MIDEAST: Hebrew University, Jerusalem
+ GERMANY: Hitler's 'Mein Kampf' published;  BRITAIN: Unemployment Insurance Act
+ IDEAS: Quantum Mechanics (Heisenberg, Bohr & Jordan)
+ JAPAN: general suffrage for males;  MEDITERRANEAN: Cyprus becomes British colony
+ CHINA: Chiang Kai-shek reunites China;  MIDEAST: reform & modernisation in Turkey
+ BRITAIN: general strike in Britain (against unemployment & government policies)
+ IBERIA: Salazar takes power in Portugal;  N AFRICA: revolt crushed in Morocco by Spain
+ * ARTS: Talking movies, great film-makers: Griffith, Disney, Eisenstein, Hitchcock, Chaplin
+ ARTS: Milne's 'Winnie the Pooh';  INNOVATION: Goddard (US) fires first rocket
Age 20
+ WORLD: economic conference of 52 nations at Geneva
+ GERMANY: 'Black Friday' collapse of economy; foreign troops leave; Nazi Party program published
+ INNOVATION: first electronic musical instrument;  ARTS: Gershwin & Hammerstein at work in NYC, USA
+ INNOVATION: Lindbergh's NY-Paris flight in 'Spirit of St Louis' (33 hrs)
+ USSR: first Five Year Plan and collectivisation of agriculture ('command economy')
+ WORLD: Briand-Kellogg Pact (15+54 states sign) bans war as a means to settle conflicts
+ BRITAIN: suffrage for women over 21;  ATLANTIC: Amelia Earhart flies the Atlantic
+ INNOVATION: Fleming discs penicillin; first organ transplants; first TV broadcasts, NY; teleprinters
+ S AMERICA: collapse of Brazilian economy
+ WORLD: Wall Street Crash precipitates world economic depression (unemployment, loss, poverty)
+ BRITAIN: Labour gov't (R MacDonald);  OCEANIA: Labour gov't;  RUSSIA: Trotsky exiled (killed 39)
+ C EUROPE: dictatorship in Yugoslavia;  MIDEAST: Palestinians attack Jews (over Wailing Wall)
+ USA: construction of Empire State Building (1929-31); growth of comic strips; gangsterism
+ INNOVATION: isolation of estrone (fem hormone); quartz-crystal clock; Einstein's Unified Field Theory
+ S AMERICA: military revolution in Brazil & Argentina;  * GERMANY: rise of Nazi Party & its sponsors
+ WORLD: naval disarmament treaty (US UK Japan France Italy);  * international drive against narcotics
+ INDIA: Mahatma Ghandi starts campaign of non-violent civil disobedience against British
+ INNOVATION: planet Pluto discovered by Tombaugh; devel of cyclotron; photo flash bulbs
+ AFRICA: Ras Tafari becomes Ethiopian Emp Haile Selassie; trans-Africa Benguela Railway completed
+ IDEAS: Adler, Freud, Keynes, Planck, Trotsky, Laski, Einstein, Heidegger, Vienna Circle
+ E ASIA: Japanese annex Manchuria;  INDIA: anti-British unrest, Congress banned, Ghandi arrested
+ BRITAIN: Gold Standard abandoned (econ downfall);  EUROPE: bank crises in Germany & Austria
+ MIDEAST: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia formed by Ibn Saud;  USSR: Second Five Year Plan; famine
+ S AMERICA: Chaco War, Bolivia & Paraguay;  USA: F D Roosevelt President (1932-45 - reconstruction)
+ GERMANY: Nazi majority in Reichstag; emigration of artists;  JAPAN: export price undercutting
+ INNOVATION: development of radio astronomy; Piccard's balloon flight to 17.5 miles up; vitamin research
+ GERMANY: Hitler Chancellor (1933-45): Nazi revolution: Reichstag fire, dictatorship, Jew-hunts
+ USA: Roosevelt's 'New Deal'; US abandons Gold Standard; recognises USSR; repeals prohibition
+ FRANCE: Stavisky corruption scandal;  MIDEAST: massacre of Assyrian christians in Iraq
+ INNOVATION: Arctic warming discovered (9° C in 30 yrs);  ARTS: 'King Kong'
+ * CHINA: Long March of Communists begins, with Mao Tse-dong;  USSR: Stalin's purges begin
+ N AFRICA: Italian suppression of Senussi resistance in Libya
+ EUROPE: revolution in Austria; Hitler & Mussolini meet; general strike in France
+ WORLD: USSR joins League of Nations, Japan leaves, renounces various treaties
+ BRITAIN: regional planning & driving tests introduced; Churchill warns of war
+ IDEAS: Toynbee's 'A Study of History';  ARTS: Gershwin's 'Porgy & Bess'; Fred Astaire
+ N AFRICA: Italy invades Ethiopia
+ C AMERICA: land redistribution & oil nationalisation in Mexico;  USA: Social Security Act
+ GERMANY: Saarland annexed, breaking of treaties, social pressures;  USSR: political show trials
+ INNOVATION: Alcoholics Anonymous, NYC; radar; Hammond Organs
+ BRITAIN: Oswald Mosley's Fascism
+ MIDEAST: Palestinian revolt against Jewish immigration; oil pipeline Iraq-Levant
+ GERMANY: German reoccupation of Rhineland; Japan signs anti-Comintern pact with Germany
+ IBERIA: Spanish Civil War begins (Franco);  N AFRICA: British occupy Suez Canal by alliance
+ AMERICAS: Pan-American Congress; USA proclaims good-neighbour policy;  USA: 'Swing' music
+ IDEAS: Keynes' 'Theory of Employment, Interest & Money';  INNOVATION: BBC regular TV transmissions
Age 30
+ ASIA: Japan invades China (Beijing, Shanghai, Nanking); Chiang Kai-Shek & Mao Tse-Dong unite
+ MIDEAST: separate Arab & Jewish Palestinian states suggested;  WORLD: Germany-Italy-Japan pact
+ USA: neutrality declared; econ recession; 'Hindenberg' Zeppelin disaster; Ford Foundation established
+ INNOVATION: jet engine first built in UK; first worldwide radio broadcast; nylon patented (du Pont)
+ EUROPE: Germany occupies Austria; Munich conference; dismemberment of Czechoslovakia
+ USSR: pogroms & trials, rapid industrialisation;  EUROPE: Roosevelt urges European amicability
+ EUROPE: Germany invades Poland: SECOND WORLD WAR begins; war at sea, USSR fights in Poland
+ IBERIA: fascist dictator Franco in power, Civil War ends; alliance with Germany-Italy
+ USA: economic boom (war trade from Europe);  WORLD: Pan-Am & BOAC founded
+ E ASIA: Japanese friction with USA & UK in China
+ INNOVATION: polyethylene; Sikorsky's helicopter; DDT; research on splitting atom; FM radio
+ EUROPE: Germany overruns Norway, Belgium, France, Denmark, Netherlands
+ W EUROPE: air Battle of Britain; British night bombing of Germany; U-boat warfare
+ CHINA: UK reopens Burma Road to supply Chinese against Japan
+ FRANCE: Lascaux prehistoric wall paintings discovered (20,000 yrs old)
+ WORLD: Japan attacks USA in Hawaii: USA enters Second World War
+ WORLD: Germany invades Russia & Egypt; Japan invades Hong Kong & Philippines
+ WORLD: USA begins lend-lease to Britain (end of British capital dominance in world)
+ INNOVATION: 'Manhattan Project' (atomic research); plutonium discovered
+ ASIA: Japan overruns SE Asia;  PACIFIC: Battle of Midway: USA halts Japanese expansion
+ N AFRICA: Battle of El Alamein, German defeat and retreat (turning-point)
+ EUROPE: German VIth army surrenders at Stalingrad; Italian capitulation; Jewish Holocaust
+ INNOVATION: Fermi splits the atom; first electronic computer; magnetic tape-recording; Oxfam founded
+ INDIA: Ghandi demands Indian independence
+ EUROPE: German retreat begins; Warsaw ghetto massacre; bombing of Germany; Italy surrenders
+ ASIA: US forces take Pacific islands; Chinese push back Japanese
+ USA: race riots; wage, salary & price freeze (against inflation)
+ EUROPE: Allied landings in Normandy (D-Day); Russian advance in E Europe; Warsaw uprising
+ ASIA: Vietnam (Ho Chih Minh) declares independence of France & Japan; Japanese losses; US bombs Japan
+ S AMERICA: rise of Peron in Argentina; FRANCE: de Gaulle takes power
+ WORLD: Yalta Conference (Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill; origin of 'Cold War'; world map redrawn)
+ EUROPE: defeat of Germany, suicide of Hitler; Germany divided into 4 zones; Nuremburg trials
+ INNOVATION: ATOMIC BOMB FIRST DETONATED, NM, USA; atomic energy research, Harwell, UK
+ WORLD: USA drops atom bombs on Hiroshima & Nagasaki (forcing surrender); WW2 ends, 45m dead
+ WORLD: UNITED NATIONS established, HQ New York; World Bank founded (reconstruction & development)
+ MIDEAST: Arab League formed;  C EUROPE: People's Rep of Yugoslavia declared (Tito)
+ CHINA: Civil War in China (1945-9) (between Kuomintang & Communists)
+ * SE ASIA: Vietnamese struggle against France (1946-54);  MIDEAST: Br & Fr leave Lebanon
+ EUROPE: Paris Peace Conference; general devastation & chaos; Churchill's 'Iron Curtain' speech
+ GERMANY: Communists gain gov't in E Germany;  SCANDINAVIA: Tage Erlander, PM of Sweden (46-69)
+ INNOVATION: pilotless missile; discovery of 'solar wind'; xerography process (photocopying)
Age 40
+ S ASIA: India (Hindu) & Pakistan (Islamic) independent (Ghandi & Nehru); Burma independent
+ WORLD: intensification of Cold War (1945-89): Truman Doctrine; formation of NATO alliance
+ SE EUROPE: Greek Civil War (1947-9);  USA: first UFOs reported
+ EUROPE: US Marshall Plan for econ reconstruction in Europe; Benelux customs union (seed of EC)
+ INNOVATION: supersonic flight, USA; transistor invented; Thor Heyerdahl sails Pacific on Kon Tiki
+ MIDEAST: establishment of state of Israel (Ben Gurion): first Arab-Israeli war
+ E EUROPE: Communist takeover in Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary; Berlin airlift
+ AMERICAS: Organisation of American States established;  WORLD: World Health Assembly, Geneva
+ EUROPE: Hague Conference on European Unity;  INNOVATION: LP record, Mt Palomar telescope
+ IDEAS: Kinsey on sexology; Big Bang theory of origin of universe
+ ARTS: Rodgers & Hammerstein's 'South Pacific'
+ CHINA: Communist victory; PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA declared (Mao Tsedong, Chou Enlai)
+ SE ASIA: Indonesia independent;  CHINA: Chiang Kai-Shek removes to Formosa (Taiwan)
+ EUROPE: Council of Europe founded, Strasbourg; German Federal Republic founded
+ S AFRICA: apartheid program inaugurated;  USA: anti-Communist trials (McCarthyism)
+ INNOVATION: US missile reaches 250 miles into space;  USSR's first atomic bomb
+ BRITAIN: nationalisation & establishment of 'welfare state'
+ EAST ASIA: Korean War (1950-53) (communists against capitalists); US aids Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia
+ C ASIA: Chinese forces occupy Tibet;  S AFRICA: race riots against apartheid, Johannesburg
+ USA: McCarthyite anti-Communist & Korea paranoia; Fuchs (UK) & Gold (US) atomic secrets trials
+ WORLD: UN reports 450m children undernourished; world population 3.2 billion
+ PACIFIC: Australia, NZ & USA sign Anzas Pact
+ INNOVATION: first nuclear power stations in USA & UK; colour TV (US)
+ WORLD: Cold War: defections (Burgess & Maclean); spy trials in US & Czechoslovakia; East Berlin escapees
+ E AFRICA: Mau-Mau rebellion in Kenya
+ N AFRICA: military revolt against Britain in Egypt; proclamation of republic by Nasser
+ INNOVATION: contraceptive pill developed (US); hydrogen bomb (US); isotopes in medicine & industry
+ GERMANY: economic revival, Germany joins World Bank; Israeli-German restitution agreement
+ N AMERICA: first major nuclear accident & leak, Canada
+ USSR: end of Stalinist period in USSR; Kruschev First Secretary; E ASIA: Korean Armistice
+ WORLD: Dag Hammarskjold, Secretary-General of UN (1953-61); Hillary & Tenzing climb Mt Everest
+ AFRICA: unrest in Kenya, Rhodesia & Nyasaland;  WORLD: first Commonwealth Conference, London
+ INNOVATION: lung cancer attributed to cigarette smoking; structure of DNA molecule identified, UK
+ * ARTS: Britten, Schoenberg, Stravinsky, K Amis, Somerset Maugham, William Golding, Priestley, Picasso
+ SE ASIA: Laos, Cambodia & Vietnam become independent of France (Geneva Conference)
+ N AFRICA: beginnings of nationalist revolt in Algeria
+ WORLD: agreements between France-West Germany, Japan-Burma, US-Taiwan, US-Japan
+ USA: McCarthyism tempered; physicist Oppenheimer demoted; Distant Early-Warning System (radar)
+ INNOVATION: Bannister runs 4-minute mile;  WORLD: World Council of Churches convenes; Billy Graham
+ ASIA: Bandung conference
+ E EUROPE: Warsaw Pact signed (Soviet & East European defence pact)
+ W EUROPE: European Union (France, Italy, W Germany);  BRITAIN: rail & dock strikes
+ WORLD: Universal Copyright Convention;  INNOVATION: UHF broadcasting; artificial diamonds
+ USA: black civil rights agitation, Alabama; rise of Martin Luther King; AFL-CIO merger
+ INNOVATION: hovercraft & optical fibres
+ MIDEAST: Second Arab-Israeli war;  N AFRICA: Suez crisis: Anglo-French invasion of canal zone
+ E EUROPE: Polish revolt, Gomulka in power; Hungarian revolt crushed by Russia (mass arrests)
+ S ASIA: Pakistan becomes an Islamic Republic;  AFRICA: Sudan, Tunisia, Morocco independent
+ * ARTS: rock'n'roll: Elvis Presley's 'Blue Suede Shoes';  AMERICAS: Fidel Castro & Che Guevara
+ INNOVATION: transatlantic telephone cable; neutrino discovered; antibiotic research; FORTRAN devised
+ IDEAS: dawn of mass Peace Movement (CND marches, Aldermaston, UK);  INNOVATION: first video recording
Age 50
+ SE ASIA: Civil war in Vietnam
+ * AFRICA: decolonisation in W Africa: Ghana independent
+ WORLD: 71 cities with 1m+ people (16 in 1914)
+ FRANCE: Fifth Republic in France, under General de Gaulle
+ WORLD: Communist influence (USSR-China cooperation, USSR aid to Egypt & Cuba; Chinese in Indochina)
+ AMERICAS: West Indies Federation; anti-USA feeling in S America;  USA: 'Explorer' satellite
+ WORLD: Beatnik movement in Europe & USA; nuclear submarine passes under Arctic icecap
+ INNOVATION: Van Allen belt discovered; stereo recording;  IDEAS: Galbraith's 'Affluent Society'
+ C AMERICA: Cuban Revolution (Fidel Castro)
+ WORLD: World Refugee Year; USSR sends two monkeys into space & Lunik satellites to Moon
+ MEDITERRANEAN: Cyprus becomes republic under Archbishop Makarios
+ ARTS: Gunther Grass, Ionesco, Norman Mailer, John Updike, Ian Fleming, Philip Roth, Graham Greene
+ C ASIA: flight of Dalai Lama from Chinese-occupied Tibet (exile government in North India)
+ ASIA: Sino-Soviet disputes begin (end of cooperation);  USA-USSR: U-2 spyplane crisis
+ AFRICA: 'Africa's Year': many states independent; outbreak of civil war in Congo
+ USA: J F Kennedy, Pres (60-63); USSR: Leonid Brezhnev Pres;  WORLD: US-USSR-UK-France summit fails
+ S AMERICA: Brasilia becomes capital of Brazil;  GERMANY: neo-Nazism grows, is banned
+ INNOVATION: first communications & weather satellites, USA; laser device; Carbon-14 dating
+ SE ASIA: Increasing US involvement in Vietnam (against Communist growth)
+ EUROPE: East Germans build Berlin Wall (height of 'Cold War';  AMERICAS: 'Bay of Pigs' fiasco
+ S AFRICA: South Africa becomes independent republic; UN condemns apartheid
+ INNOVATION: FIRST MAN IN SPACE, Gagarin, USSR; structure of DNA molecule determined, UK
+ AFRICA: Tanganyika Conference (on protecting African wildlife)
+ ARTS: Heller's 'Catch-22', Heinlein's 'Stranger in a Strange Land'
+ ASIA: Sino-Indian war (in Himalayas)
+ AFRICA: Algeria independent (after uprising against France); Uganda & Tanganyika independent
+ WORLD: Cuba missile crisis (threat of nuclear war); U Thant becomes UN Secretary-General
+ ROME: Second Vatican Council reforms catholic liturgy & dogma
+ INNOVATION: Telstar, Venus probe, orbiting astronauts; thalidomide scandal
+ * WORLD: decline of 19th C industries (coal-based) & rise of Third World industry (SE Asia)
+ USA: civil rights unrest, Alabama, 'Freedom Marches', DC; Kennedy assassinated
+ USSR-USA 'Hot Line'; Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (USA, USSR, UK);  BRITAIN: Great Train Robbery
+ BRITAIN: Profumo Affair; Philby spy scandal; UK application to join EC rejected by de Gaulle
+ INNOVATION: first woman in space (V Tereshkova, 3 days); quasars discovered; artificial heart used
+ SE ASIA: military coup in S Vietnam (USA aided);  AFRICA: Kenya independent (Jomo Kenyatta)
+ USA: Civil Rights Bill inaugurates Pres Johnson's Great Society program;  BRITAIN: Harold Wilson, PM
+ CHINA: publication of 'Thoughts of Chairman Mao';  SE ASIA: escalation of Vietnam war
+ AFRICA: Tanzania formed (Nyerere); Zambia (Kaunda), Malawi & Congo (Tshombe) independent
+ MIDEAST: Arafat becomes leader of Palestinian Al Fatah (PLO)
+ BRITAIN: Harold Wilson, PM; Mods & Rockers; 'Brain Drain'; emergence of Beatles & Mersey Sound
+ INDIA: Indo-Pakistan War (over Kashmir);  SE ASIA: military takeover in Indonesia
+ AFRICA: Rhodesia declares UDI; Gambia independent; socialist revolution in Algeria
+ USA: black civil rights marches (Alabama), anti-Vietnam War demonstrations, LA race riots
+ SE ASIA: full-scale war in Vietnam; USSR supports North Vietnam
+ WORLD: earthquake in Chile; tornadoes in US; cyclones in East Pakistan
+ USA: Ralph Nader fights for consumer rights
+ * CHINA: Cultural Revolution (Red Guard, purges, forced reforms, 'words of Chairman Mao')
+ USA: black discontent & growth of Black Power;  WORLD: International Days of Protest (anti-Vietnam War)
+ * WORLD: 'Flower Power' & use of LSD grows (San Francisco, London, Ibiza, Goa, Amsterdam, Kathmandu)
+ BRITAIN: economic downfall & standstill; IBERIA: loss of four unarmed US H-bombs (retrieved)
+ INNOVATION: * international spread of the supermarket & mass tourism; Surveyor 1 sends pictures from Moon
Age 60
+ MIDEAST: Six Day War, between Israel & Arabs (Israel gains Jerusalem, closes Suez Canal)
+ AFRICA: Biafra Civil War in Nigeria (1967-70 - much death & famine);  EUROPE: military coup in Greece
+ CHINA: China-UK friction over Hong Kong;  MIDEAST: pan-Arab solidarity grows
+ N AMERICA: de Gaulle's 'Quebec Libre' speech;  EUROPE: military coup in Greece
+ ARTS: Beatles' 'Sgt Pepper', Dylan, Clapton, Rolling Stones, Hendrix, Joplin, G Dead, Airplane
+ INNOVATION: development of genetic engineering (synthesis of DNA); Expo 67, Montreal; heart transplants
+ C EUROPE: liberal 'Prague Spring' (Dubcek) halted by USSR intervention; unrest in Warsaw
+ USA: assassination of Martin Luther King & Robert Kennedy;  CANADA: Pierre Trudeau, liberal PM
+ WORLD: student & political protest (near anarchy in Germany, France, UK);  USA: draft-dodging
+ BRITAIN: curbs on immigration from India, Africa, West Indies (repatriation suggested)
+ INNOVATION: growth of worldwide satellite communications; pulsars discovered
+ * JAPAN: now third largest industrial state in world; A RTS: 'Monty Python', Kenneth Clark's 'Civilisation'
+ IRELAND: violence breaks out in Ulster (between Catholic nationalists & Protestant unionists)
+ INNOVATION: FIRST MAN LANDS ON THE MOON (Armstrong, USA); supersonic Concorde airliner
+ MIDEAST: growth of Palestine Lib'n Front (Y Arafat);  C EUROPE: public suicide of Jan Palach
+ WORLD: Rome convention on marine pollution; first banning of DDT & cyclamate food additives
+ * IDEAS: influential Feminist, Green, New Left, Black, inner growth movements; Woodstock festival
+ WORLD: world inflation, high interest rates; Nixon, Golda Meir, Indira Ghandi, W Brandt, Heath
+ E EUROPE: Polish-German treaty (recognition of post-WW2 frontiers); German 'Ostpolitik'
+ S AMERICA: socialist Allende elected president of Chile, assassinated 1973
+ WORLD: growth of airplane hijacking; low financial confidence;  SE ASIA: Vietnam de-escalation
+ S AMERICA: world's first elected Marxist president, Allende, Chile
+ USA: Kent State deaths, 450 colleges close; Charles Manson; 'Jesus Movement' (fundamentalism)
+ MIDEAST: Palestinians fight Jordan for space to live & operate;  IDEAS: G Greer 'Female Eunuch'
+ WORLD: US-China detente, China joins UN; first US-USSR nuclear test ban treaty (ocean floor)
+ S ASIA: Indo-Pak war leads to breakaway of Bangla Desh;  SE ASIA: war spreads to Laos & Cambodia
+ AFRICA: Idi Amin, Uganda dictator (1971-79 - terror); Algeria nationalises French gas & oil interests
+ EUROPE: end of 400-year dispute between Catholic & Anglican churches (ecumenicalism)
+ BRITAIN: postal strike; internment without trial in Ulster
+ INNOVATION: 'Intel' microprocessor silicon chip developed
+ * WORLD: DÉTANTE (relaxing of Cold War);  USA: 'Watergate Affair' (secrecy & corruption)
+ SE ASIA: Marcos, dictator in Philippines;  OCEANIA: Whitlam's Labour government, Australia (anti-USA)
+ INNOVATION: discovery of Tasaday stone-age tribe, Philippines; 'homo habilis' (Richard Leakey, Kenya)
+ S ASIA: Ceylon becomes Sri Lanka republic
+ SE ASIA: USA failing in IndoChina, VietCong, Pathet-Lao & Khmer Rouge gaining; 2m dead (65-73)
+ MIDEAST: Yom Kippur, fourth Arab-Israeli war; Arab oil embargo of industrial world
+ EUROPE: Britain, Eire & Denmark join EC; E & W Germany recognise each other
+ WORLD: major recession in world (oil prices & economic instability; decline of Euro-USA dominance)
+ S AMERICA: military coup, Chile (Allende dies, CIA involvement); return of Perons, Argentina
+ INNOVATION: US Pioneer 10 flies past Jupiter;  IDEAS: Schumacher's 'Small is Beautiful'
+ IBERIA: end of dictatorship in Portugal;  AFRICA: Mozambique & Angola soon independent
+ MEDITERRANEAN: Turkish invasion of East Cyprus (partition); return of democracy in Greece
+ USA: Nixon resigns in Watergate affair; protests over pardoning of Nixon; corruption trials
+ SE ASIA: Communists take over Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia;  ARTS: ABBA (pop music)
+ AFRICA: drought & famine; H Selassie of Ethiopia deposed by Marxist junta; Eritrean liberation war
+ INNOVATION: Skylab; USSR lands on Mars; research on quarks;  WORLD: worldwide economic inflation
+ MIDEAST: war between Christians & Muslims in Lebanon starts
+ EUROPE: 35 nations sign Helsinki Accords on Security & Cooperation;  WORLD: International Women's Year
+ ASIA: India annexes Sikkim; Cambodian Khmer Rouge forces terror 'reforms'; end of Vietnam War
+ WORLD: independence of Angola, Mozambique, Papua New Guinea, Surinam; military coup in Peru
+ WORLD: growing Arab solidarity against Isreal; OPEC raises oil prices 10%; Suez Canal reopens
+ WORLD: US Apollo & USSR Soyuz craft meet in space; Europe & US liberalisation on homosexuality
+ AFRICA: Morocco & Mauritania partition Spanish Sahara; Angola civil war starts; Soweto riots
+ IBERIA: liberalisation in Spain on death of Franco;  WORLD: destruction of ozone layer noted
+ WORLD: USA-USSR nuclear test treaty;  USA: Bicentennial; 'Moonies'; Jimmy Carter, President
+ CHINA: Mao dies; Hua Kuo-Feng begins liberalisation; 'Gang of Four' coup attempt
+ SCANDINAVIA: Swedish Social Democratic Party (Olof Palme) loses first election for 44 years
+ WORLD: earthquakes in China, Italy, Turkey, Mindanao, Bali, Guatemala;  EUROPE: riots in Poland
Age 70
+ WORLD: HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUES (Carter, Sakharov, Amnesty International); energy crisis & conservation
+ WORLD: two jumbo jets collide at Tenerife, killing 575 people
+ MIDEAST: PLO calls for independent Palestinian nation; Egypt-Israel agreements
+ ASIA: military coups in Pakistan (Zia) & Thailand;  S AFRICA: 'independent black homelands' created
+ INNOVATION: space shuttle; neutron bomb; discovery of Chiron & Uranus' rings; genetics breakthroughs
+ USA: blackouts in NYC (disruption & looting);  WORLD: volcanic eruptions in Japan, Italy, Hawaii
+ WORLD: unrest in Nicarague, Iran, Afghanistan, Yemen, Bolivia; war in Lebanon complexifies
+ INNOVATION: Soviet cosmonauts 20 weeks in space; 'test-tube baby' (UK);  ARTS: Andrew Lloyd-Webber
+ EUROPE: Red Brigades (Italy), Baader-Meinhof (Ger), IRA (UK) bombings
+ AFRICA: Katanga invaded by rebels (repulsed);  S AMERICA: 'People's Temple' suicide of 917 people
+ * SE ASIA: beg of migration of Vietnamese 'boat people' (escaping communist regime)
+ ROME: Polish Pope John Paul II (first non-Italian since 1522)
+ C ASIA: Soviet forces occupy Afghanistan (1979-89) (fight between Soviets & Islamic fundamentalism)
+ MIDEAST: Shah deposed; Ayatollah Khomeini returns to found fundamentalist Islamic republic
+ AFRICA: Uganda invaded by expatriots, Idi Amin deposed (end of genocide, corruption, torture)
+ SE ASIA: Vietnam invades Kampuchea (against Pol Pot Khmer Rouge regime)
+ BRITAIN: Margaret Thatcher becomes PM;  IRAN: students take US hostages (seeking return of Shah)
+ * WORLD: growth of influential New Age, complementary medicine, womens' and green movements
+ MIDEAST: Iran-Iraq war (80-89, deadlocked, costly); US abortive attempt to rescue hostages
+ C AMERICA: ruthless civil wars in San Salvador and elsewhere in Latin America
+ E EUROPE: Solidarity (Lech Walesa) focuses dissent in Poland (seed of later revolutions)
+ AFRICA: Zimbabwe independent (Mugabe)
+ * ASIA: rise of Islamic Fundamentalism (Khomeini); Sadat (Egypt) killed; Muhajedin fighters
+ WORLD: assassination attempts on US President Ronald Reagan & Pope John Paul II
+ MIDEAST: Israeli planes destroy nuclear plant in Iraq (preventing bomb-making)
+ BRITAIN: IRA Maze hunger strike; inner city riots, unemployment 2m+
+ USA: Ronald Reagan accuses USSR of being 'Evil Empire'; moral-majority conservatism
+ MIDEAST: Israel invades troubled Lebanon (evacuation of PLO by sea)
+ S AMERICA: Falklands War (UK 'Iron Lady' vs Argentine junta) over Malvinas islands
+ IBERIA: socialist Gonzalez, PM (reform & economic growth);  ARTS: Attenborough's film 'Ghandi'
+ S ASIA: Tamil separatists unleash unrest in Sri Lanka
+ * WORLD: peak of nuclear war fears ('Star Wars', cruise missiles, Greenham Common women)
+ MIDEAST: 239 US Marines killed by Islamic Jihad terrorists (US withdraw from Lebanon)
+ INDIA: Bengalis massacred in Assam in civil riots
+ E ASIA: USSR Migs shoot down stray Korean airliner over Kamchatka
+ INNOVATION: Pioneer 10 passes Neptune and leaves solar system
+ * WORLD: int'lising of finance grows almost to cult proportions (takeovers, junk-bonds)
+ INDIA: Bhopal Union Carbide toxic gas disaster (2500 die)
+ INDIA: gov't invasion of Sikh Golden Temple, Kashmir; Sikhs kill Indira Ghandi
+ AFRICA: disastrous famine in Ethiopia (weather, war + government restrictions)
+ INNOVATION: identification of AIDS virus; retrieval & repair of satellite by space shuttle
+ BRITAIN: coal miners' strike (against industrial decline & gov't);  WORLD: AIDS scares
+ C AMERICA: civil war in Nicaragua (Sandinista gov't vs right-wing, US-backed Contras)
+ WORLD: Live Aid (Geldof, raises money for Ethiopian famine, swings awareness worldwide)
+ WORLD: international terrorism (mainly Islamic) threatens order & security
+ WORLD: Fr agents sink Greenpeace 'Rainbow Warrior' (to prevent protest against nuclear test)
+ S AFRICA: black township unrest, state of emergency declared
+ USSR: rise to power of Mikhael Gorbachev, perestroika & glasnost (new era in USSR)
+ USA: 'Irangate' affair; explosion of space-shuttle 'Challenger'; support of right-wing Contras
+ WORLD: explosion of Chernobyl nuclear plant (Ukraine) brings fear & opinion swing worldwide
+ SE ASIA: dictator Marcos ousted by Mrs Aquino in Philippines ('people power' against dictators)
+ N AFRICA: US bombing of Libya (against int terrorism & Col Ghadafi)
+ * WORLD: International pressure groups: Greenpeace, Friends of the Earth, peace groups, Amnesty International
Age 80
+ WORLD: growing atmosphere for disarmament: Reagan (US) & Gorbachev (USSR) summits
+ USSR: Gorbachev starts major liberal reforms (social & economic restructuring & openness)
+ MIDEAST: Iran-Iraq war intensifies (endangering Persian Gulf, oil interests & neighbours)
+ WORLD: 'Black Monday' Stock Market crash ends period of world economic growth & speculation
+ WORLD: Japan now dominates world financial markets; ecological priorities grow (ozone-layer)
+ BRITAIN: 'Spycatcher' secrets trials; hurricane hits England
+ USA: 'Irangate' trials (over clandestine military deals between USA & Iran)
+ WORLD: rise of threat of chemical warfare (Iraqi use against Kurdish minority & Iran)
+ C ASIA: Tibetan revolts against Chinese government
+ SE ASIA: ascendancy of the Asian 'tiger economies' - Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, Taiwan, Indonesia
+ WORLD: rise of threat of chemical warfare (Iraqi use against Kurdish minority & Iran)
+ EUROPE: Communist governments topple in East Europe (non-violent velvet revolutions, except Rumania)
+ WORLD: awakening of nationalist feeling worldwide (USSR, East Europe, Asia)
+ WORLD: Salman Rushdie affair (awakens old shadows of European-Islamic strife)
+ WORLD: FALL OF IRON CURTAIN & BERLIN WALL (changes in world power and in Europe)
+ WORLD: campaign to create a World Park in Antarctica
+ CHINA: Tienanmen Square democracy movement crushed (human rights)
+ S AFRICA: liberalisation and ending of apartheid (President de Klerk)
+ MIDEAST: Iraq occupies Kuwait (threatening world economy & oil supplies)
+ WORLD: global corporate power (Microsoft, News International, McDonalds, corporate takeovers)
+ USSR: separatist movements (Baltics, Georgia, Caucasus; disintegration, threat of civil war)
+ EUROPE: reunification of Germany begins new era in 1990s Germany (Chancellor Kohl)
+ MIDEAST: Gulf War (Desert Storm, against Iraq); Shia & Kurdish rebellions; major relief operations in Iraq
+ AFRICA: famine in Ethiopia/Sudan (changes in aid operations, growth of large aid organisations)
+ MIDEAST: Lebanese civil war (1976-91) ends in national exhaustion (reconstruction follows)
+ RUSSIA: rapid end of USSR, Gorbachev & Communist party (coup attempt); rise of Yeltsin's Russia, with
Western business invasion & growth of Russian business-mafia; Ukraine & Baltic states independent
+ C ASIA: new states of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Kirgyzstan, Turkmenistan
+ WORLD: growth of the World Wide Web, bringing Internet into widespread popular use
+ WORLD: noticeable major global climatic changes; UN Rio Earth Summit (on global ecological questions)
+ EUROPE: European Union integration (Maastricht Treaty, harmonisation, social & economic)
+ AFRICA: failed UN/US intervention in Somalia (peacekeeping & aid fail; African power-politics low-point)
+ SE EUROPE: break-up of Yugoslavia into small states, war between Serbia & Croatia
+ W EUROPE: rise of the mysterious phenomenon of crop formations
+ EUROPE: Bosnian civil war (between Muslim, Croat & Serb Bosnians, atrocities & concentration camps)
+ MIDEAST: Israel-Palestine peace accords (mediated in Norway, plans for a Palestinian state)
+ * WORLD: political, religious & institutional corruption exposed in many countries
+ USA: Pres Bill Clinton (US period of wealth, technological growth & sole world superpower)
+ RUSSIA: Mafiosi-businessmen become the dominant power in Russia
+ AFRICA: Rwanda massacres (of Tutsi by Hutu; genocidal horror, Hutus flee, refugee camps)
+ S AFRICA: multi-racial elections in S Africa (ANC, Pres Nelson Mandela, multi-racial society)
+ RUSSIA: Chechen war (94-97, Chechens declare independence, Russian invasion, destruction of Grozny)
+ * CHINA: rise of China as a world economic/manufacturing power (rebuilding of Shanghai)
+ EUROPE: NATO intervention in Bosnia, war ends (NATO/UN occupation, Serb loss; UN peacekeeping)
+ MIDEAST: Israeli PM Rabin assassinated (by right-wing Jew, Israeli peace process fails, right-wing gov't)
+ WORLD: furore over French nuclear testing in Pacific Ocean (growing world pacifism)
+ WORLD: UN Women's Conference, Beijing (Third World women's influence and role in world change)
+ ASIA: decline of Japan as economic power (loans crises, lack of reform, competition from Tiger economies)
+ C ASIA: fundamentalist Taliban militia take Afghanistan (oppression of women)
+ INNOVATION: a computer beats chess-master Kasparov at chess
+ * MIDEAST: Kurdish campaigns for independence (Turkey, Syria, Iraq)

Datelist extracted from The Historical Ephemeris by Palden Jenkins, 1993, Glastonbury Archive

Click here to go to the next page
Sir George Trevelyan
An archive of his life and work

"Affairs are now soul size – the enterprise is exploration into God"
- Christopher Fry
Brief biographies
Close encounters
Articles  Books
Photo collection
Site map
How to contact us

© All material on this website is copyright. You may download and print single copies for personal use and study, in a spirit of fair play and involving no financial transactions. Reproduction in all media in larger quantities or in business require permission.
Copyrights are owned by the contributing authors or their estates. Up to three pictures from this site may be used, without permission being required, on non-commercial websites (only), with an acknowledgement, a link to and to let us know the URL and pictures used. All other uses require permission. in the first instance with copyright permissions questions.